I believe I’ve come up with another philosophical weakness within the Darwinian model, this one having to do with adaptive mutation.
Let’s take an imaginary creature, a species of reptile for instance. And let’s imagine that somewhere along the evolutionary pathway a mutation occurs in one of these creatures, a mutation that is a precursor to the reptile’s eventual form of a bird. The mutation involves small, stump-like growths on its sides that will eventually turn in to wings.
There are several problems here. For natural selection to take root, the mutation must give this particular reptile an advantage over its brethren. But this mutation gives no advantage. Indeed, they seem to be a hindrance. And not only is the mutation a hindrance, it will be a hindrance for thousands and thousands of years, until finally and eventually enough mutations occur to produce wings.
It seems that many people who believe in Darwin’s theory look at an advantageous aspect of an animal and forget that in order to reach that point, an animal would have had to endure thousands or millions of years of disadvantage.
Now, there are of course certain traits in some animals that we can imagine as being progressively more advantageous. A giraffe’s long neck for instance. With each mutation the neck gets longer and longer and each mutational generation has an advantage over the prior.
However, even in the case of the giraffe, there is a problem which heaps yet more mathematical improbability onto the case. In order for Darwinism to be true, a species that experiences a mutation that gives it a slightly longer neck such as the giraffe, must experience the same exact mutation over and over until its neck reaches the length now seen in giraffes. If there is an infinitesimally small chance that the first mutation occurs and is beneficial, how much less the chance that the giraffe experiences a series of mutations that extend its neck? The Darwinist may argue that each generation of giraffes with longer necks has an advantage and therefore outlasts other generations. But why should an advantageous mutation continue to elongate the neck? There is a seemingly infinite number of imaginable mutations that could give giraffes an advantage. The longer neck is not a necessary aspect of survival, since there are other herbivores that don’t have such long necks and still survive. And yet the Darwinist must believe that for some special reason, evolution chooses to give giraffes longer and longer necks, and yet does not choose to give antelopes necks which are close to the length of the giraffe’s.